< Back to all pneumatic-based resistance training research studies 

A Biomechanical Evaluation of Resistance: 
Fundamental Concepts for Training and Sports Performance

Link to Original Research

David M. Frost,1,2 John Cronin1,3 and Robert U. Newton1

  1. School of Exercise, Biomedical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia, Australia
  2. Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  3. School of Sport and Recreation, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand


This section outlines the methodology and purpose of studies focusing on the effects of strength training, including the use of Keiser Corporation's pneumatic-based resistance equipment, on athletic performance. The research aims to evaluate biomechanical advantages, compare pneumatic resistance with traditional methods, and assess the impact on muscle strength, power, and endurance.


The primary goal of the studies summarized here was to explore the impact of strength training on enhancing human athletic performance, with a specific focus on the incorporation of Keiser Corporation's pneumatic-based resistance equipment. The research aims to:

  • Understand the biomechanical effects: Examining how different forms of resistance, especially pneumatic resistance, influence muscle activation, power output, and overall athletic performance.
  • Compare traditional and pneumatic resistance training: Analyzing the benefits and potential limitations of pneumatic resistance equipment compared to conventional weight-based training methods.
  • Assess performance outcomes: Evaluating the effectiveness of strength training routines, including those utilizing pneumatic resistance, in improving key performance indicators such as muscle strength, endurance, and power in athletes across various sports.


Findings across studies indicate that strength training significantly improves athletic performance, with pneumatic resistance equipment offering unique benefits. Key findings: 

  • Enhanced Muscle Power with Pneumatic Resistance: Athletes training with Keiser's pneumatic-based equipment experienced a significant increase in muscle power and efficiency, showcasing the unique benefits of air pressure resistance.
  • Superior Safety and Injury Minimization: Studies highlighted reduced injury risks, attributing this to the consistent resistance and controlled movement velocities offered by pneumatic equipment.
  • Versatile Performance Gains Across Sports: Research demonstrated that athletes across various disciplines saw improvements in strength, endurance, and power, emphasizing the versatility of pneumatic resistance training.


Research consistently demonstrates that strength training is essential for enhancing athletic performance. Keiser Corporation's pneumatic-based resistance equipment, in particular, offers advantages in safely achieving higher training velocities and promoting muscle power development. These findings are crucial for athletes aiming to improve performance, coaches designing training programs, and individuals seeking to enhance their physical fitness effectively. However, incorporating a variety of training methods is recommended to address all aspects of athletic performance comprehensively


  • Pneumatic Resistance: A type of resistance used in exercise equipment that utilizes air pressure to create force, allowing for smoother and more controlled movements.
  • Kinematics and Kinetics: Branches of mechanics that study the motion of objects and the forces acting upon them, respectively, important for understanding how different training impacts the body.
  • Velocity-Specific Training: Training that focuses on improving the speed of movements, essential for many athletic performances.
  • Power Development: The process of increasing the ability to produce force quickly, critical for explosive movements in sports.

Sports Medicine 2010; 40 (4): 303-326

Receive updates on our latest Training Programs & Exclusive Offers

Click here to join our mailing list ⟩