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Influence of Isoinertial-Pneumatic Mixed Resistances on Force-Velocity Relationship

Link to Original Research

Simon Avrillon, Boris Jidovtseff, François Hug, and Gaël Guilhem


This study delves into the optimization of muscle strengthening by examining the effects of combining pneumatic and isoinertial resistances on the force-velocity relationship during ballistic bench press movements. Through a methodical approach, participants executed ballistic movements under varying ratios of pneumatic to isoinertial resistance, enabling a detailed analysis of force, velocity, and power dynamics.


The investigation revealed that adjusting the pneumatic and isoinertial resistance ratio significantly impacts movement velocity and force production. Specifically, increasing the pneumatic resistance component enhances movement velocity in the early to mid-phases of the concentric action, albeit with reduced force output. Conversely, augmenting isoinertial resistance boosts force production, particularly towards the movement's culmination, favoring the development of maximal force and power. These findings underscore the potential of resistance modulation to tailor athletic training for specific performance goals, emphasizing velocity or force as needed.


The study's insights highlight the strategic modulation of pneumatic and isoinertial resistances as a novel approach to fine-tune training stimuli for athletic purposes. By adjusting the resistance ratio, trainers can target specific phases of movement for velocity or force enhancement, offering a customized pathway to optimize ballistic movement performance. This research supports the integration of mixed resistance training into athletic conditioning programs, paving the way for more nuanced and effective strength training methodologies.


  • Isoinertial Resistance: A type of resistance used in training that remains constant throughout the movement, typically involving weights.
  • Pneumatic Resistance: Resistance generated by air pressure, adjustable and can vary during the exercise, allowing for different force applications.
  • Ballistic Movements: Rapid, explosive movements where the performer applies maximal force in short intervals.
  • Force-Velocity Relationship: The relationship between the force a muscle produces and the speed of the movement, indicating how force production varies with changing speeds.

International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance (2016)

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