Benefits of Strength Training on Diabetes in Older Adults

Research Articles

The following explanation and definitions will be useful in understanding the studies concerning glucose, insulin and diabetes.

When a person ingests food it is changed to glucose, which is carried through the blood stream for use, by the cells. The pancreas responds by secreting the appropriate level of insulin necessary for changing glucose into energy usable by the cells. The term insulin sensitivity is used to describe the efficiency of this process.

Older individuals do not utilize insulin as efficiently as younger individuals, perhaps due to differences in physical activity or body composition. The term insulin resistance is used to describe this reduced efficiency. Insulin resistance results in higher levels of glucose remaining in the bloodstream (hyperglycemia) which leads to a host of very serious health consequences.

Chromium metabolism:
Metabolism of the trace mineral chromium. Chromium enhances the production and effects of insulin. It also helps to increase blood levels of HDL (good cholesterol) while reducing levels of LDL (bad cholesterol).

Insulin sensitivity:
The efficiency with which insulin is distributed and used by the body.

Insulin resistance:
Refers to a reduced efficiency of insulin usage by the body.

Insulin action:
The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake by the cells.

Glucose metabolism:
The process by which glucose is changed into energy usable by the cells. Non-oxidative- refers to this process occurring when no oxygen is available for use: Oxidative-refers to this process occurring when oxygen is utilized.

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